Cinq faits marquants sur l’eau, l’assainissement et l’hygiène dans le monde

Près d’un tiers de la population mondiale est privée d’accès à l’eau potable

Eau, assainissement et hygiène

L’eau potable et l’accès aux articles d’assainissement et d’hygiène sauvent des vies. Ces articles de première nécessité sont essentiels à la survie et au développement, et leur insuffisance peut provoquer des maladies, accroître la pauvreté et même entraîner la mort.

Voici 5 faits marquants sur l’eau, l’assainissement et l’hygiène dans le monde :

1. 2,2 MILLIARDS DE PERSONNES, SOIT PRÈS D’UN TIERS DE LA POPULATION MONDIALE, SONT PRIVÉES D’ACCÈS À L’EAU POTABLE

Summary .Pamela (15) and her younger sister Monica (8) are essentially orphans. Their father passed away in 2009, and their mother left them in 2013 to find work in South Africa. They depend on the generosity of their neighbours for food, and live in perpetual fear of abuse, since they have no adult to look after, or protect them. The borehole in their village (built by the government) broke down over a year ago. Now their only options for water are an open well 200m away, which is filled with dirty water, or for Pamela to make a 4km walk with the 20l bucket of water on her way home from school. The ANCP WASH program will provide hygiene and sanitation training to their school, and the community. But it will be up to the community to built a VIP toilet for the girls, and up to the girls to bring home the learnings they receive at school. Though CARE plans to repair their nearby borehole, it has not been confirmed in the plans as yetPamela’s story in his/her own words
My name is Pamela.  My sister’s name is Monica.  She is eight and I am 15. I am in Grade 6 and Monica is in Grade 3.
We live alone, the two of us.
Our father passed away in 2009.
He used to work on farms. He got sick and was taken to hospital where he passed away.
Our mother went to Johannesburg and hasn’t come back.
One day she said “I am going to see a friend.” She left and never came back.
She left in January.
She went to look for a job.
I don’t know if she found one. We hear from her every now and then. She said to call her and let her know when we run out of food so she can send money. Sometimes she sends a small amount of moneyIt’s very painful to think about our mother. She has been gone for a long time and we are left alone. We miss her so much.
Since my mother has left us, I have to plan everything and make all the decisions. I do all the washing. I have to cook all the meals. Usually I cook sadza and vegetables.
We don’t have many friends. I only have two and Monica only has one.
Others just don’t like us, we don’t know why.
We love school. It’s a long walk to get there, but we love to go to school.
I love learning. I also love sports. I love everything we do at school.
I often get chosen to be the leader in activities at school and that makes me happy.
I want to be educated, to be able to go to school, so that one day I can get a good job and earn an income.
I can’t afford my school fees, and we have no one to look after us or protect us.
We get our water from a nearby well. But the water is very dirty and it makes us sick. Usually it’s my younger sister who falls sick.
Usually I go alone to collect water but if we are completely out of water, Monica comes with me and carries half a bucket.
Every week one of us falls sick. Every week. And sometimes it takes days for us to get better. It feels so painful when we are sick.
When she’s sick I feel troubled. When I see her sick I have no solution; I can’t help her. The water makes her sick and I can’t do anything about it.
My wish is to get clean water close to us. Because there is no clean water close to our home, I have to carry a bucket to school and fetch water from school.
That takes up my time for completing my homework, time to play with others, and I have less time to do my chores. It is almost 4km walk from school.
I always have to rest on the way when I carry the bucket home. And the others leave us behind. They go in a group and I have to go on my own. No one else can help me carry the bucket.
At times, when I’m walking home in the dark, I’m afraid of the hyenas. If I see them while carrying the bucket, I will have to drop the bucket and run away.
We hear the hyenas howling.
On one occasion, we were too afraid to come home so we had to stay at a house near the school.
My sister gets diarrhoea and she vomits every time she gets sick. Then I have to look after her and take care of her.  And I have to leave her on her own while I go to school.
It troubles me to leave her alone, but I’m also worried about being left behind at school and missing out on learning.
It is scary being here alone. We lock the door from the outside sometimes so that people think that no one is home. Then I climb in through the window to go to sleep. We are afraid that people will come here to abuse us.
This used to be our kitchen but it was destroyed by strong winds and rain.
It is important to wash your hands because you can get diseases if you don’t.
Each day I light the fire then cook food for school. Then I get my bucket and walk to school. After school I fetch the water and walk home. Then I start washing the morning’s dishes, then I cook dinner and we eat.
We don’t have time to play. I wish we did though.
I leave home at around 5am and return at around 7 in the evening.
People don’t like me. I don’t know why. I love them but they don’t like me.
I want to live peacefully with our neighbours, with lots of love. And I want my family to be successful.
FROM THEIR CHILDCARE WORKER, MUSIKAVANAH:
We provide food from social welfare. Grain only. Pamela’s school fees are covered by the government.
This borehole is up to 15m deep. Pamela does not know how to swim, so if she falls in she could drown.
Once, a cow fell in here and drowned. We had to pull it out.
Monica was kicked out of school because her fees couldn’t be paid. But we begged the headmaster to let her come to school and learn, and he agreed because of her circumstances.
Interviewed by John Hewat and Timothy Buckley in Chopa Village on 13 October 2017.
Scene-setting information: .Chivi South is desperately lacking in clean water sources. The areas are not yet Open Defecation Free, and the residents are largely subsistence farmers. The two children in this case study have no adult supervision or guardians. A volunteer Child Care Worker checks in on them from time to time. His name is Musikavanah.
Project information and major issues:
CARE’s ANCP WASH program targets the most vulnerable communities with hygiene education, sanitation training, and the rehabilitation of boreholes to provide clean, safe drinking water close to home for residents of Chivi South.

2. CHAQUE JOUR, DES FEMMES ET DES JEUNES FILLES CONSACRENT PLUS DE 152 MILLIONS D’HEURES À S’APPROVISIONNER EN EAU. ELLES POURRAIENT PASSER CE TEMPS À ÉTUDIER, À TRAVAILLER OU À S’OCCUPER DE LEUR FAMILLE.

<p>
Mother we interviewed -.Asmarech Adugmu, 49, is a mother of 6 children. She has been a wash community member for 5 years. She is also a member of her village savings and loans, where they also discussed hygiene and sanitation issues affecting the community. She is a house wife and farmer.<br />
Yamerot Tesfaw, 15, is her daughter and member of school sanitation club. She is responsible for collecting family water and makes several trips a day to the new near bye water safe water source. She wants to be a pilot when she grows up. (We followed her to collect water)<br />
Boy, Derbie Tesfaw, 24, graduate of biology is one of her sons. He is living back at home because he has not been able to get a job.<br />
(Little boy) Muluken Tesfaw, 5, grade one is her youngest son. (Nice stuff with mosquito net)<br />
The family installed a latrine, switched their clay water jug to a more hygienic plastic jug, have access to a nearby shallow well, and have seen overall illness in the family drop dramatically.<br />
I met this family 18 months previously and can say their house is much cleaner, they use mosquito nets and generally the whole place feels much nicer and healthier<br />
Photo by Josh Estey/CARE<br />
<br />
DAY 2.240713 ETHIOPIA.In the Ginde Atemem, Kebele, Estie Wareda, in the highlands of Northern Ethiopia.<br />
Background: .This WASH project lasted from 2012-2013.</p>

3. 4,2 MILLIARDS DE PERSONNES DANS LE MONDE NE DISPOSENT PAS D’INSTALLATIONS SANITAIRES SÉCURITAIRES.

27/02/2013 CARE-supported school toilets. Aldeia Balibo Vila, Suco Balibo, Maliana District, Timor-Leste. Photos by Tom Greenwood

4. CHAQUE ANNÉE, 297 000 ENFANTS DE MOINS DE 5 ANS MEURENT DES SUITES DE MALADIES DIARRHÉIQUES CAUSÉES PAR L’INSALUBRITÉ DE L’EAU ET DES PRATIQUES SANITAIRES ET HYGIÉNIQUES INADÉQUATES.

Diana Vunganyi (18) lives in Bwanya Village, Masvingo Province in southern Zimbabwe with her grandparents and younger sister. Her parents have passed away.  Diana is currently repeating Form 4 because last year (2016) she did not have enough money to sit her Form 4 exams, therefore has to complete the entire year a second time. Diana says she has learned to accept what her grandparents can provide and does not ask for more. One thing she as struggled with is sanitary items. She is thankful Care has introduced reusable sanitary pads to her school. Students were trained how to make them out of different materials so that each girl had one to use. Although that is still not enough, it is an improvement that means Diana can continue with her education as normal. Prior to that, she was using torn clothes while she was menstruating. Most months she would miss a week of school due to inadequate sanitary items.
In terms of water, Diana does not have access to clean drinking water at home. She fetches water from a river for her family twice a day - once before school and once after school. It’s a long walk to the river (50 minutes), and sometimes Diana is late to school as a result. She has experienced diarrhoea several times and cholera in 2013. Diana estimates she spends 4 hours per day walking for water. Diana says if she didn’t have to collect water, she wouldn’t be so tired and would be able to spend more time studying.

5. 80 % DES EAUX USÉES DU MONDE SONT REJETÉES DANS DES COURS D’EAU SANS FAIRE L’OBJET D’ÉPURATION. L’EAU POTABLE AINSI POLLUÉE CONTRIBUE À LA PROPAGATION DE MALADIES HYDRIQUES.

OFFREZ À UNE FAMILLE L’ACCÈS À L’EAU POTABLE

Faites un don qui permettra à une famille d’accéder à l’eau potable et de rester en bonne santé. Grâce à vous, des femmes et des jeunes filles pourront aller à l’école ou gagner leur vie.